Far away from the ocean, Xinjiang lies in the inland, and is surrounded by mountains so that marine current can not reach, which leads to distinct temperate continental climate. Xinjiang sees large temperature differences between day and night, with a little rainfall, dry climate and sufficient sunshine time (2500 - 3500 hours annually).
The average annual rainfall there is about 150 mm, but rainfall varies widely in different places. Southern Xinjiang temperatures are higher than that of northern Xinjiang, but it receives much more rainfall than the south.
The coldest month (January) sees the average temperature of - 20 ℃ in Junggar Basin whose north rim lies in Fuyun County that ever experienced the absolute lowest temperature of - 50.15 ℃ which was one of the coldest regions in China.
The hottest month (July) which is named “the Land of Fire”is in Turpan, with the average temperature over 33 ℃. Its absolute highest temperature ever amounted to 49.6 ℃, ranking in the first in China.
Because most of the large temperature difference of the turn of the spring and summer, and autumn and winter, therefore, there has been a saying: "wearing fur jacket in the morning but voile clothes in the afternoon, eating watermelons sitting around the hot stove".
Xinjiang experiences extreme climate. Turpan, which can reach 47 ℃ in June and August, is the hottest spot in the country. The two basins there, Tarim and Jungar Basins, aren't better at those times. Though spring (April and May) isn’t may not see such high temperature, it is not a good time to visit because Xinjiang springs come with frequent sandstorms and clouds obscuring the landscape and making travel difficult. Winters (December to February) see quite low temperature but with splendid and overwhelming views of snow. Late May, June, September, mid-November (especially) are all the best times to visit.